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WHO S WHO - L, M, N, O, P, Q, R

JULY 30, 2013

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Laden, Osama bin (1957-2011)

The Saudi Arabian millionaire was 'most wanted' in several terrorist attacks, and was also the prime suspect in the attack on the World Trade Centre in New York. Caught and killed by American forces during Operation Geronimo.


Lakshmibai, Rani of Jhansi (1835- '58)

The Queen of Jhansi was a brave warrior who took active part in the first war of Indian independence during the 1857 revolt against the British in India. Her kingdom had been annexed by the British using the Doctrine of Lapse.


Lenin (Vladimir Ilyich) (1870- 1924)

Russian revolutionary leader and statesman who led the famed October Revolution liberated the country from the rule of the Tsars (1917). Thereafter, he headed the Soviet government until his death.


Lie, Trygve (1896-1968)

Norwegian poli­tician who became the first U.N. Secre­tary General. ('46-53).


Lincoln, Abraham (1809-'65)

16th President of the USA (1861). Formed the Repub­lican Party to oppose slavery. As­sassinated.


Louis XIV (1638-1715)

King of France for the longest time (72 years). A despotic rul­er who dominated the Europe of his day. His exhausting wars weakened France.


MacArthur, Douglas

US general and army chief of staff. During World War II, he received Japan's surrender in Sept. 1945. Allied Commander of the postwar occu­pation of Japan.


Machiavelli, Nicolo

Italian writer and diplomat who wrote the famous classic Prince. Name associated with immorality and des­potism in politics.


Malaviya, Madan Mohan

Indian patriot, national leader and social reformer. Founded the Hindu Mahasabha (1906) and Banaras Hindu University (1916).


Mandela, Nelson Rolihlala

Elected the first-ever black President of South Africa in May 1994. Jailed for about 27 years (1964-1990) for fighting the policy of racial discrimination apartheid using Gandhian methods. Under his leader­ship, South Afri­ca became a non- racist democracy. Awarded the Bharat Ratna in 1990 and the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1993. Wrote the well-known Long Walk to Freedom.


Mao Zedong (1893-1976)

Architect of the Chinese Revolution and founder of the People's Republic of China. Experi­ments include 'Communes', the 'Great Leap Forward' and the 'Cultural Revolu­tion' (65-69). His writings have influenced the later revolutionary thinking.


Marie Antoinette

Queen of France and wife of Louis XVI. Was accused of trea­son and beheaded the French Revolution. Ill-famed for her statement “If they can’t eat bread, let them eat cake.”


Marx, Karl (1818-'83)

Great German so­cialist thinker. With his friend Engels, he wrote the Communist Manifesto. Founder of modern international com­munism. Also wrote Das Kapi­tal.


Masani, Minoo (1906-'98)

Freedom fighter active during the Quit India movement. Founded the Swa­tantra Party.


Mavalankar, Ganesh Vasudeo (1888- 1956)

First Speaker of the Lok Sabha. Played active role in India's Non-coopera­tion and Civil Disobedience movements.


Meera Behn (1892-1982)

British disciple of Gandhiji. Her real name was Madeline Slade.


Mehta, Pherozeshah (1845-1915)

One of the founders of the Indian National Congress. A pioneer of 'Swadeshi'.


Meir, Golda (1898-1978)

First woman to be Israeli Prime Minister.


Menon, V K Krishna (1896-1974)

Defence Minister in Nehru’s Cabinet. An impressive orator and writer, he distinguished himself with his eloquence at the U. N. on the Kashmir issue.


Merkel, Angela (b.1954)

The first wom­an to become the Chancellor of Germany.


Mitterrand, Fran­cois (1916-'96)

French socialist poli­tician, presi­dent of the Fifth Republic, 1981. Re­-elected in 1988.


Moore, Sir Thomas (1478-1535)

An Eng­lish statesman, author and martyr; Lord Chancellor. Upon his refusal to recognise Henry VIII as head of the church, he was executed. His Utopia classic describes an ideal state.


Mugabe, Robert Gabriel (b. 1924)

First Prime Minister of independent Zimba­bwe, 1980. Now its President.


Mussolini, Benito (1883-1945)

Fas­cist dictator of Italy during 1922-43. In 1940 he entered the war on Hitler’s side. Defeated in North Africa. The invasion of Sic­ily caused the col­lapse of his government. Was killed by partisans.


Namboodiripad, E M S (1909-'98)

Indian politician and General Secretary of Communist Party of India (Marxist) until 1992. Elected Chief Minister India’s and Asia's first elected Commu­nist government in Kerala during 1957-'59 and '67-'69.


Nanda, Gulzari Lal (1898-1998)

Prominent Gan­dhian who was India's acting Prime Minister twice and a veteran labour leader. One of the chief authors of India's planned economy. Honoured with Bharat Ratna in 1997.


Naoroji, Dadabhai (1825-1917)

Pio­neer of Indian nationalism who propounded and popularized the Theory of Economic Drain during the British rule. First Indian to become member of British Parliament (1862). Was elected Congress President thrice. Affectionately called the 'Grand Old Man of India'.


Napoleon I,  Bonaparte (1769-1821)

French emperor and military general. Achieved brilliant vic­tories over the Austrians and Russians. The Allies forced him to abdicate. In 1815, he was defeated at Waterloo and exiled to St. Helena, where he died later.


Narain, Jayaprakash (1902-79)

Most frequently associated with Total Revolution in mid-seventies. Sarvo­daya leader of India, known popularly as Loknayak and JP. Social reformer with socialistic zeal. Instrumental in the forma­tion of the Janata Party. Honoured posthumously with Bharat Ratna.


Narayanan, K R (1921- 2005)

President from 1997-2002 and Vice President during 1992-97. Joined the for­eign service and was diplo­mat to China, USA etc.


Nassar, Gamal Abdel (1918-'70)

Egyp­tian statesman and Arab leader. Deposed General Neguib (1954). Elected the President in 1956. Nationalised the Suez Canal (1956). One of the founders of Non Aligned Movement (NAM).


Nehru, Pandit Jawaharlal (1889-1964)

First Prime Minister (1947-1964) and the ar­chitect of modern India. A close associate of Mahatma Gandhi. Ardent democrat, internationalist, advocate of scientific method and modern technology. One of the founders of NAM. His daughter In­dira Gandhi and grandson Rajiv Gandhi became PMs later. Decorated with Bharat Ratna. Authored Glimpses of World History and Discovery of India.


Nero, Claudius Caesar (A.D. 37-68)

Ro­man emperor. Weak and licentious; per­secuted Christians. The fire of Rome occurred dur­ing his reign, leading to the saying “Nero played the flute while Rome was burning”. Committed suicide.


Nicholas ll (1868-1918)

The last emperor and Tsar of Russia. When the revolution broke out in 1917, he and his family were shot dead.


Nixon, Richard (1913-'94)

Re­publican President of the USA during 1969-74. A process of reconcilation with China be­gun during his tenure. The Watergate scandal led to his resignation in 1974.


Nyerere, Julius (1922-'99)

Former Tanza­nian President and a popular African leader. Chairman, South Commission.


Obama, Barack (b. 1961)

US President since January, 2009. First African-American to occupy the White House. Born of a Ke­nyan father and a white mother. Formerly Professor of Law. Brilliant orator and au­thor.








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